Ever since Adam and Eve sinned in the Garden of Eden, man has been struggling with the problems of an imperfect world such as weeds, death and disease. This is very true for the koi keeper who over the years has been forced to experiment with different chemicals and compounds in the quest to find the magic bullet that will successfully treat his koi.
Pond treatments are big business and it is evident how much as koi keepers we are cursed with disease when viewing the range of bottles, boxes and powders stocked by koi dealers to treat our koi.
Once opened, many of the different branded treatments look very similar as they share very similar formulations, tried and tested over time. Historically, there has been very little financial incentive for pharmaceutical companies to research new aquatic medications when confronted with extensive research costs and the limited market compared with the incentives for finding new drugs for the human medicine.
Some of the chemicals used in the hobby today have been introduced (and recently restricted) from fish farming and other disciplines, including human medicine. With several treatments under potential threat of withdrawal from our hobby, and the change in koi keepers opinions away from chemical treatments, alternative methods are starting to enter the market.
As science becomes progressively applied to koi keeping and in this age of information overload, more questions are being asked of what koi are subjected to when treated for disease. Are the treatments environmentally friendly? Are there alternatives? Why do we use them? How do they work? What are the side effects for our koi, filter and pond?
All medications are used for their toxic effects on the target disease organism, whether bacteria, fungi or parasites. Unfortunately, most medications are also toxic to koi as well as filter bacteria and aquatic plants.
The approach to chemotherapy in the pond environment is quite unique in the pet industry in that the water is usually treated instead of the animal. The chemical dose is determined by the volume of the pond rather than the size or number of koi. In this way, when using a long-term bath treatment it is necessary to know the precise volume of the pond rather than the size or weight of the diseased animals.
This has many obvious benefits in that the fish can be treated without being handled and potentially thousands of fish can be treated in a single action (a real benefit for the koi farmer). Yet, the cost of treating 20 koi in a pond compared with 20 koi in a bowl would unavoidably be more expensive; but as most pond treatments are inexpensive, this still does not prove to be a financial problem.
Larger specimen koi (and other large pond fish) suffering from certain bacterial conditions are sometimes better treated individually with antibiotic injections. In contrast, in this situation it is essential to know the size of the fish and the cost of the treatment is directly related to the weight of fish treated.
Chemotherapy (chemical treatment) immediately conjures up thoughts and images of cancer treatment and the appalling associated side effects such as loss of weight and hair. Such graphic side effects are due to the treatment also being toxic to the host. The key factor is treating with a dose that is sufficiently concentrated to kill the disease but not the host. The same is true in koi chemotherapy.
It is better not to treat at all rather than under-dose as under-dosing stresses the fish and does not eradicate the target pathogen, perhaps even enabling future generations of that disease to become more resistant to treatment. This is already the case with some bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and some parasites being resistant to insecticides where the application of the medication has been inappropriate.
What do koi medications treat?
There are 4 categories of pathogen (disease-causing organisms): viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.
1. Very briefly, viruses cause diseases such as carp pox and are responsible for a number of notifiable diseases such as SVC in carp, and more recently KHV. Viral diseases cannot be treated because of their mode of action and this is why most of the notifiable diseases in the UK are viral. Once a fish has contracted the disease, it is untreatable and down to the fishs own immune response to attack the virus. Notifiable disease is a disease listed by DEFRA/CEFAS whereby any occurrence of such a disease must be reported to DEFRA/CEFAS who control the movement of these fish and thus control the spread of the untreatable viral disease. Notifiable diseases are responsible for closing down fish farms as a result of the strict practices that infected sites have to carry out.)
Fish, just like humans, can be vaccinated against certain viral diseases where they are inoculated with a weakened form of the virus that stimulates the body to produce anti-bodies against that virus. In future infections by that virus the body is at an advantage in that it already possesses the antibodies to attack the virus. The fish is then immune to that virus. Although trialed in koi, fish vaccination is more common in fish farming and can be carried out using a dip or bath.
Parasites on wild fish remain in a finely balanced relationship where their level of infection does not cause the death of the host. It is in the parasites interests to keep its host alive. In captivity in a koi pond, however, koi and parasite relationships can become unbalanced causing the death of the host. Treatments for parasites vary according to the location of the parasite (internally/externally), the size of the parasite and its lifecycle.
What treatments are used?
It is no coincidence that many proprietary pond medications are very similar in colour and appearance. Most of them follow very similar formulae with differences occurring in the refinement of chemicals used, chemical concentrations and minor adjustments to the base formula.
Other chemicals are used on their own and for toxic implications cannot be mixed with other active ingredients.
Commonly used chemicals include malachite green, formalin, acriflavine, potassium permanganate, methylene blue, antibiotics and salt. A koi keeper at one time or other will have used at least one of the above to treat their koi so it is pertinent to know what effect these chemicals have on the disease, fish and the pond environment.
How do medications work?
Malachite is a strong dark green dye that has even been used as an antiseptic in wounds in humans. Different grades are available but the less toxic zinc-free malachite green is used in ponds to treat fungus and microscopic external parasites such as Chilodinella, Costia and White Spot.
Due to its broad action, malachite is often the foundation to many pond medications. Malachite is toxic to humans as well as fish and is a cancer-causing substance. Care must be taken when using it especially if in powder form as it is extremely concentrated in this form. Fish unavoidably absorb malachite through their gills and being a cumulative toxin it is stored in fish flesh. Its use in trout farming has recently been restricted as there is evidence that fish reaching the market contain traces of malachite green.
A replacement for malachite that is less risky to humans is being researched but as malachite is so effective and readily available, the financial incentive to research and develop an alternative is very small when considering the small size of the pond market. Such a change will only occur through legislation banning the use of malachite in certain circumstances.
Malachite permeates through cell membranes of parasites and fungi where it interferes with respiratory and metabolic processes within the cells. Consequently, treated pathogens are unable to generate energy within their cells, eventually dying.
If koi are overdosed with malachite their cells suffer the same effects on a massive scale potentially killing the koi. There is no antidote for malachite over dose.
Formalin is a solution of approximately 40% formaldehyde gas. It is a clear, colourless, pungent and highly toxic solution. Regularly used with malachite green (Leteux-Meyer mixture) as the effect of the 2 combined chemicals is greater than the sum of each if used individually. It is very effective against microscopic external parasites such as white spot, Chilodinella and Trichodina.
Formalin is a universal disinfectant and works by damaging the structure of proteins that form the structure of cells and the genetic information within the cells themselves. Technically described as a protein precipitator, formalin denatures proteins unselectively which unfortunately will also include koi tissue, so the correct dosing is critical.
The antiseptic nature of acriflavine is known from its uses in human medicine as a treatment for mouth and throat infections and for disinfecting wounds.
It is a deep yellow powder that dissolves easily in water and can be used to treat bacteria, fungi and particular parasitic infections.
It is absorbed through cell membranes where it reacts with DNA inside the cells. This disrupts the pathogens ability to reproduce causing an accelerated death and preventing the spread of the infestation. It is still not clear why acriflavine has this effect on DNA within cells.
This is a dark purple crystal effective against bacteria and external parasitic infections and is routinely the treatment for dipping newly-harvested or imported koi. It is a very toxic chemical that can quite easily kill fish if even slightly over dosed. Its mode of action can be seen by the naked eye in that it forms manganese dioxide giving surfaces a brown colouration. This forms a manganese-protein complex in contact with proteins (fish skin, mucus, parasites, bacteria) which interferes with the protein synthesis of the organism, causing death.
Its effect is greatly reduced by a high organic content in the water as the potassium permanganate reacts with the organic molecules in the water rather than the target organisms.
In the Second World War and during rations, when tights and stockings were in very short supply, to remain fashionable, ladies regularly took Potassium Permanganate baths to turn their legs brown! This is not to be recommended.
Methylene blue comes as a very dark green powder, appearing blue when dissolved in water. Once very fashionable, methylene blue is now considered a traditional medication for bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections. It is now used less frequently as it is highly toxic to plants and will wipe out the bacteria in a biofilter (See Table 1). It is easily absorbed through cell membranes and affects cell activity by raising oxygen consumption within cells. Its mode of action is unclear but it is thought that its action is similar to that of other dyes.
Antibiotics (literally means against life) are naturally occurring chemicals produced by fungi or bacteria that have an antibacterial effect. Antibiotics are now manufactured and produced synthetically but have the same effect.
The use of antibiotics in the UK is controlled by prescription to limit their use to treating worthy cases rather than allow their widespread use to prevent disease that would increase bacterial resistance. This has already been seen with antibiotics such as oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline which are now useless against many bacteria. This has been one of the major issues in recent years when treating ulcers in imported pondfish where the ulcer does not respond to antibiotic treatment due to bacterial resistance.
Antibiotics can be added to water in short term baths and dips, fed orally in medicated food or given via injection. They must not be added to a tank or pond as they will wipe out any biofiltration (See Table 1).
Their mode of action is varied and ranges from the interference of cell membrane formation in developing bacteria to the inhibition of genetic apparatus within microbes, preventing cell division and the multiplication of bacteria. As bacterial infections spread rapidly it is vital to stop the bacteria from dividing and multiplying and antibiotics achieve just that, unless the bacteria are resistant to that antibiotic.
Salt (sodium chloride) can have several therapeutic effects on koi and is used quite regularly by some koi keepers as a preventative as well as a treatment.
It has effective antiseptic properties and can be used as a tonic in mild concentrations to stimulate the kois metabolism. It can also be added to ponds to reduce nitrite toxicity. Used as a dip or a long-term bath, salt can also be used as a treatment against external parasites such as Trichodina, Argulus and Lernaea.
In stronger concentrations, salt is believed to have a 3-fold effect on parasites.
If treating ulcerated fish, the addition of salt to the water also reduces the influx of water into koi, taking pressure off its kidney functions. It is important to remember that salt will remain in a pond system until it is removed with a water change.
As it can be seen, the mode of action of many koi medications is at the cellular level, attacking cell membranes or activities within the cell. Medications are not usually selective in their action but quite crude, with koi surviving by virtue of their size and complexity in relation to the smaller, susceptible pathogen. Consequently, pathogens of just 1 or a few cells in size are easier to treat (and kill) than the more complex and larger parasites.
Medications are nearly always toxic to koi and humans and administered on the basis that at the recommended dose rates, they are more toxic to the pathogen that the koi. This is why medications should never be overdosed.
It is essential to acknowledge that while most disease problems are the result of a water quality problem, pond medications will not solve a water quality problem but only treat the disease. Therefore always try to identify and solve the cause of the problem before treating it.
Volume in gallons: Calculate the volume in cubic feet and multiply answer by 6.25 Volume in litres: Calculate the volume in cubic feet and multiply answer by 28.375
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